Andreas G. Papandreou

Full Biography

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On his return to Greece, Georgios Papandreou publishes an article under the title "The King and the Nation" for which he is sentenced to 18 months imprisonment. His wife Sofia and their young son Andreas visited Georgios in prison.


Georgios Papandreou is appointed Minister of the Interior in the government led by S. Gonatas. The Papandreou family had already moved to Kypseli in Athens.


Andreas G. Papandreou attends the Aidonopoulou School for the 1st class of Primary School where he continues his studies until 1926.


Andreas Papandreou studies the subjects of the 3rd and 4th class of Primary School at home.


Andreas Papandreou is associate professor and lecturer at the University of Minnesota.


In September, Andreas Papandreou publishes his first article in the American Economic Review titled “Marketing Structure and Monopoly Power”.


He continues his literary work. He publishes the article “Some basic Problems in the Theory of the Firm”, a contribution to the 2nd vol. of Survey of Contemporary Economics.

He also publishes the article “Types of Empirical Relevance in Modern Economics” in Economia Internationale.


He publishes the articles “Competition and its Regulation” with J.T. Wheeler and “An Experimental Test of a Proposition in the Theory of Choice” in Consumer Behavior. He also publishes the article “Testing Assumptions Underlying Economic Predictions” with O.E. Brownlee in Business New Notes of the University of Minnesota.


He publishes the article “Concentration and Public Policy” in the Iowa Business Digest and “The Economic Effect of Trademarks” in California Law Review.

He receives the chair of the Department of Economics in Berkeley University, California.


He serves as an advisor to the anti- monopoly department of the U.S. Ministry of Justice. He publishes the article “A Test of a Stochastic Theory of Choice”, monograph, U of California, Publications in Economics, vol. 6, no. 1


He publishes his scientific work “Economics as a Science”.


In early 1959, Andreas Papandreou comes to Greece on a scholarship by the Guggenheim and the Fulbright Foundation to do research on the Greek economy and to evaluate it’s prospective. In spring, Konstantinos Karamanlis, who is Premier at the time, offers him the position of Financial Advisor at the Bank of Greece and the foundation of an Economics Research Centre in Greece. When his scholarships expired, Andreas left for the United States but on the way back he decided to accept Karamanlis’ proposal.

He publishes the articles “Risk” in Encyclopedia Britannica and “Explanation and Prediction in Economics" in Science.

He also publishes the articles “Macroeconomics Models and Economic Policy” in Archive of Economic of Social Sciences, vol. 39, “Τμηματικές Δομές των Κανονιστικών Οικονομικών” (Sectional Structures of Regulatory Economics) with A.A. Lazaris in Spoudes, vol. 9 and “Η Αμερικανική Δημοκρατία και το Μέλλον της” (The American Democracy and its Future).


On January 15th, the Papandreou family returns to Greece and settles in Psychiko. Andreas assumes the position of Chairman of the Board of Directors and General Director of the Athens Economics Research Centre and adviser to the Bank of Greece.Constantine II, successor to the throne, requests a meeting in order to influence Andreas’ father, Georgios, on the voting system.

The legislative election held on October 29th will become known in Greek political history as the elections of "violence and fraud". Andreas supports Georgios, who questioned the legality of the results and announced an "uncompromising struggle" against Karamanlis' government.

Just before Christmas, Andreas travels to the U.S.A. to attend the American Economics Union meeting in New York. He visits the White House and meets with officials and President John F. Kennedy’s associates to whom he points out CIA’s involvement in Greek affairs.


In April, Andreas Papandreou sets out on a major campaign in Thessaly, leading a group of parliament members with the Centre Union party to establish direct contact with the people.

On April 29th, he is reassigned Deputy Minister of Coordination.

Georgios and Andreas are accused by rivals for nepotism and hereditary succession to the leadership of the party.

On July 17th, Andreas Papandreou testifies before the examining magistrate on the “Aspida” case and states: “The deliberate involvement of my name in the “Aspida” case constitutes an aspect of the design intended to obscure the great political issue of the function of democratic institutions in our country”.

On July 15th, King Constantine II forces the Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou to resign, not accepting the removal of the Defence Minister Petros Garoufalias. Constantine tries to form a government of “apostates” (members of the Center Union Party who decided to favor the King).

On December 22nd, the Paraskevopoulos administration is formed, following the secret agreement of Georgios Papandreou, P. Kanellopoulos and King Constantine II.

Andreas publishes two monographs- “A New Economic Policy for Greece” and “Economic Development, Balance of Payments and Industrialization Policy”.


On January 16th, Andreas Papandreou leaves for Paris on a Greek passport given to him personally by the Minister of Interior S. Pattakos.

On March 16th, Georgios Papandreou makes his first political statement after the coup d’état and on the 21st, he denounces the military regime and urges their international isolation on a recorded message sent to foreign correspondents.

Andreas Papandreou and his family move to Stockholm, where Andreas is offered a teaching position at the university.

Also in March, he announces from Sweden the formation of the Panhellenic Liberation Movement (P.A.K.), the anti-dictatorial movement organization which was later on transformed into PA.SO.K. After that, he visited the U.S.A. where he had contacts with scientists and politicians. He addressed the “Americans on Democratic Action” Association and visited the Capitol, the State Department and the Pentagon and managed to extract a statement from Robert Kennedy, saying that if he became President he would immediately stop all military support towards Greece, in an effort to put pressure on the regime.

On October 24th, Georgios Papandreou is admitted to “Evangelismos” hospital with gastrorrhagia. On October 29th, his condition deteriorates and goes into surgery. He dies on November 1st. His funeral, held on November 3rd turned into the first massive demonstration of the Greek people against the Regime of the Colonels.

The Papandreou family refuses the dictators’ proposal to have the funeral paid by the Greek state. Margaret and Andreas’ children Giorgos and Sofia come to Greece for Georgios' funeral, who was often referred to as “Geros” (old man, a name indicating respect in Greece). Andreas is unable to attend his father’s funeral, to avoid arrest.


Trips to the U.S.A., Canada, Sweden, Finland.

He publishes the articles “Greece: An American Problem” in Massachusetts Review and “Some Basic Issues in Development Planning” in The Challenge, under the auspices of the Consultative Committee for Economic Development, Winnipeg.


Trips to the U.S.A. and Europe.

He publishes the articles “Paternalistic Capitalism”, “Greece: Neocolonialism and Revolution” in Monthly Review and “The Multinational Corporation” in Canadian Forum, The Journal of Finance and The American Economist, “Superpower Dynamics and the Outlook for the Mediterranean” in Information Paper No. 7, The Middle East: Five Perspectives, Proceedings of AAUG, Berkeley.


In August, Andreas Papandreou strongly criticizes the government on its “absurdly lenient” attitude on the “Sismic-1” incident. In November, he embarks on an initiative to unite and promote cooperation and coordination of all parties in the Opposition, not associated however with elections or interfering with each party’s policy, in order to promote his goals. He attends the Conference of the Socialist Parties of Southern Europe, in Paris and the Mediterranean Socialist Parties Conference, in Malta.

He publishes “Greece to the Greeks”.


In March, the 5th Conference of the Central Committee was held, aiming to organize the movement. In the next two conferences, the positions of PA.SO.K following the 1977 elections were evaluated and the issue of the “Democratic Call” was raised.

On May 28th, the Accession Treaty is signed and Greece becomes a full member of the EEC. Premier K. Karamanlis characterised the treaty as a historical necessity while the French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing pointed out that “Today Europe finds Europe again”. Andreas Papandreou did not attend the ceremony, thus expressing his disagreement.


The 7th Central Committee Conference of PA.SO.K. was dominated by the motto “PA.SO.K. in Government, the people in power”.

In May, K. Karamanlis was elected President of the Republic and Georgios Rallis[1] assumed Premiership.

In August, the five socialist leaders of Southern Europe met in Corfu on Andreas Papandreou’s initiative and discussed on cooperation within the EEC, the community’s enlargement, issues of defense, as well as issues concerning the international economic recession and the future of Mediterranean countries.

On October 21st, the Rallis administration decided to fully reinstate Greece in NATO- to rejoin the military operations of NATO to which the country refused to participate since 1974. Andreas Papandreou expressed his absolute disagreement and accused this decision of being dictatorial.

In late November, Andreas Papandreou visited G. Britain and met with Premier Margaret Thatcher and Michael Foot, leader of the Labour Party.

[1]Georgios Rallis criticizing himself for the party’s defeat in the 1981 elections wrote: “The public desire for change was much more intense than I suspected. And the worst is that this desire for change was expressed mainly by those social classes which benefited the most form the betterment of everyday life in Greece. …Of course, this result is also derived from the natural oversights of a party who has held power for seven years and the international economic recession which also affected Greece. Finally, due to my personal misjudgment in accepting candidacies who gave the party a stronger right-wing hue than what centrist voters could tolerate…”


Andreas Papandreou files a “Memorandum” to the EEC asking for improvements on Greece’s terms of participation.

PA.SO.K’s reformatory programme[1] is initiated, containing laws on the recognition of the National Resistance, decentralization, the health care system, the reform of civil law and the improvement of state functions. The “preference cross” system in parliamentary elections is abolished and the “list” is established. On December 28th, the government decides to allow the return of political refugees to Greece. Markos Vafiadis, leader of the Democratic Army, returns to Greece and later on he is elected to parliament with PA.SO.K.

[1]I. On National Independence level

1.Redefinition of interstate and conventional relations between Greece and its allies in NATO, the European Union and other international organizations.

2.Ensuring Mediterranean Support Programmes, which allowed the Greek economy to reach European standards.

II. On Public Liberties level

1.Abolition of post- civil war and antifeminist laws and measures which violated the human and democratic rights of Greek citizens.

2.Abolition of the right-wing establishments by changing the staff of state services, the armed and security forces and restructuring local authorities, the Union Movement and trade partnerships.

III. On Social Liberties level

1.Recognition and restoration of members of the National Resistance.

2.Democratic liberation of mass media and reformation of all levels of state and private education.

3.Weakening established privileges, the democratic restructure of monolithic syndicalism and the dismemberment of closed professional systems.

4.Establishment of the National Health System (E.S.Y.) and enactment of a series of social solidarity services.

5.Increase working fees in the public and private sections and set the base for achieving a fair distribution of wealth by modernizing the tax system.

IV. On Democratic Procedures level

1.Modernization of constitutional laws and reforms in the Civil, Penal and Trade Code.

2.Restructure of the election system and modernization of the functions of political parties.

3.Layout and establishment of decentralizing procedures and organizing of local authorities.